From the new info you posted, I think I know what the problem is.
You have at least one security suite, anti-virus, firewall, toolbar, ad-blocker or flash blocker installed. At least one of those programs or add-ons is causing the problems.
How-To Lookup all Toolbars and Add-ons you have installed on Internet Explorer…
1 – On Internet Explorer, go to “Tools” (on my screen all I see is this little cog wheel, I just click that)
2 – Go down the pop-up menu and click “Manage add-ons”
3 – One of those add-ons might be blocking parts of Flash related websites you go to, including the download link on the Adobe Flash Download page.
4 – Disable whatever add-on you may think is the cause of the problems
If there is not an add-on messing with your web browsing then it is firewall, anti-virus or security software on your computer. You need to check to see what you have, then go into the settings. Check what settings will make your software program less of an attack dog that kills everything that is Adobe Flash related.